Saturday, December 31, 2011

Palåbran 12/31/2011: Åñu

Åñu (AH-nyu):  Year.

Note: Åñu is sometimes interchangeable with the word såkkan (year, season), except in fixed phrases such as "Felis Åñu Nuebu (Happy New Year)!" and when referring to age. Åñu is also one of the few words whose plural is formed by adding "s" to the end.

"Felis Åñu Nuebu!" = "Happy New Year!"
"Kuåntos åños hao?" = "How old are you (How many years are you)?"
"Esta bentesinko åños gue'." = "He's already 25 years old."

Saturday, December 17, 2011

Palåbran 12/17/2011: Åmte

Åmte (UM-tee): Apply first aid, treat wound, cure sickness.

"I mediku ha åmte i chetnot-ña." = "The doctor treated his wound."
"Ha åmte i sinengge ni ingguenten aloe." = "She treated the burn with an aloe salve."
"Ma åmte i chetnudan gi addeng-ña, lao ti siña mågong ya ma utot." = "They treated the wound on his foot (sole), but they couldn't heal it and amputated it."

Note: Åmte is sometimes mistakenly confused with na'homlo'/na'mågong (to heal). Åmte is to treat an ailment, but not necessarily to heal it. The last example, however sad and unfortunate, is an example of where åmte does not mean to heal.

Tuesday, November 29, 2011

Leksion Chamoru: Para bai hu... (I will...)

The future tense in Chamorro is rather lengthy to explain, so I'll start out with a lesson on how to say "I will..." First off there are three rules to remember all future forms, not just the 1st person singular form.
  1. The base form of the verb is always used.
    (The "root" of the verb, and the affixed man- form: såga/mañåga, fåhan/mamåhan/manmamåhan, etc.)
  2. Hu-type pronouns are always used, rather than yo'-type pronouns, even with "um" verbs.
    (If a pronoun is going to be used, it has to be a hu-type.)
  3. Verbs which normally use man- in the non-future form will take on fan- in the future form.
    (When the normal base verbs uses man-, change it to fan- in the future: mañåga => fañåga, mamåhan => famåhan, etc.)
Don't worry, this sounds complicated, but it's actually not that bad.

Simply put, to say "I will..." you just use "Para bai hu...." in front of the verb phrase.
  • Såga = To stay ("root" form)
    Sumåga yo'. = I stay/stayed. (non-future)
    Para bai hu såga. = I will stay. (future)
  • Fåhan = To buy ("root")
    Hu fåhan i pån. = I bought the bread. (non-future, definite object)
    Mamåhan yo' pån. = I bought bread. (non-future, indefinite object)
    Para bai hu fåhan i pån. = I will buy the bread. (future, definite object)
    Para bai hu famåhan pån. = I will buy bread. (future, indefinite object)
  • Hånao = To go ("root)
    Humånao yo'. = I went. (non-future)
    Para bai hu hånao. = I will go. (future)
  • Taitai = To read ("root")
    Hu taitai i lepblo. = I read the book. (non-future, definite)
    Manaitai yo' lepblo. = I read a book. (non-future, indefinite)
    Para bai hu taitai i lepblo. = I will read the book. (future, definite)
    Para bai hu fanaitai lepblo. = I will read a book. (future, indefinite)
In all four cases, we're just using the base form of the verb, and changing from man- to fan- when needed.

Note: Generally, in the "para bai hu..." construction, you can omit the "para" and/or the "hu" without significantly changing the meaning.

Monday, November 28, 2011

Palåbran 11/28/2011: Teneki

Teneki (TEN-ne-key): Surely, certainly, definitely, must.

Note: This is also said tieneki and tieneski. It comes from the Spanish phrase "tiene/tienes que..." which means "you have (must) ..." However, Chamorro uses the phrase to indicate something will certainly occur.

"Teneki ma sangåni hao gi despues." = "They'll surely tell you afterwards."
"Ai na inaguaguat na påtgon, tieneki u masaolak." = "What a naughty kid, he's definitely going to be spanked."
"Nangga  sa' teneki måtto." = "Wait and it will certainly come."

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Palåbran 11/22/2011: Lasgue

Lasgue (LASS-gwee): Whittle, sharpen, make pointed, cut into pieces or slices, shape by cutting--as sharpening a pencil.

"I estodiåntes ma lasgue i lapes-ñiha." = "The students sharpened their pencils."
"Gof chaddek ha lasgue i tekcha'." = "He quickly made the spear (sharpened the wood to a spear)."
"Hu lasgue i pi'ao para dekka' nifen." = "I whittled the bamboo for a toothpick."

Monday, November 14, 2011

Leksion Chamoru: I attikulon I / Si / Iya

The article i/si/iya is probably the most used in Chamorro. The more technical way to describe it is as a focus marking particles, and grammarians/linguists might describe it as an active voice marker. However, for the rest of us it usually translates to "the." I and si both function the same way, but si is only used with proper names/titles, and iya is only used with proper place names.

The idea of "focus" is that in the subject and/or object positions of a sentence there must always be at least a main concept. The "focus" in the subject position is always the subject itself, and the "focus" in the object position we usually call the direct object in English grammar. That might sound complicated, but it boils down to the general rule that we use i/si/iya with the subjects and direct objects of a sentence. Here are some examples to help clarify:
  • Dånkolo i gima'. = The house is big.
    The subject in this case is the "house" so in Chamorro we precede it by the article i. There is no object in this sentence.
  • Humånao i patgon. = The child went.
    The subject in this sentence is "child" so we use the article i. Once again there is no object. 
  • Ha chule' i lepblo. = He took the book.
    The subject here is unspecified and only a pronoun is used, so it doesn't need a marker. However, the object "book" does need one, so we use i.
  • I taotao ha sangåni yo'. = The person told me.
    The subject here is "person" so we use i, and the object is a pronoun  so we do not need an article in Chamorro.
  • I biha ha fa'nå'gue i patgon. = The old woman taught the child.
    In this case we have "old woman" and "child" in the subject and object case, respectively, so we use the article i in both cases. 

The above examples are relatively simple sentences in Chamorro, the the concept still holds in more complicated ones as well. Here are some examples with indirect objects thrown in.
  • Lini'e' i patgon ni ma'estra. = The child was seen by the teacher.
    In this the subject is the "child" so we use the article i. The "teacher" is more or less used as a modifier in this sentence, to help us understand how the child was seen. In Chamorro we would treat "teacher" as a non-focus of the sentence. 
  • I palao'an ha chule'guan i asagua-ña ni yabi-ña. = The lady (accidentally) took her husband's keys.
    Here we have a subject and two objects. The subject is "lady" so we use i. The direct object of the verb "chule'guan" is the "husband," so use use "i" in front of "asagua-ña."
  • I tata na sangåni i lahi-ña ni estoria. = The father told his son the story.
    The "father" and "son" are subject and direct object, respectively, so we, therefore, use i in both cases. The "story" is an indirect object.
If we were to use proper names or titles in any of the above examples, we would use "si" instead of "i." And if we were to use a proper place name, we would use "iya." For example:
  • Dånkolo si Juan. = John is big
    The subject is "John," and since "John" is a proper name we use si.
  • Humånao si Maria. = Maria went.
    Once again the subjet is a proper name, so we use si.
  • Dikike' na isla iya Guåhan. = Guam is a small island.
    The subjet here is "Guam," the proper place name of the island, so we use iya rather than i or si.
In all honesty the word iya is falling into disuse in modern Chamorro, but it's still perfectly acceptable to use. You can impress all the elders by saying "Bunitu iya Guåhan" rather than "Bunitu Guåhan." 

Monday, November 7, 2011

Palåbran 11/07/2011: Eståba

Eståba (es-TAH-bah): Was, used to be, there was or were.

Note: Eståba is sometimes translated to mean "before" in the sense of "used to be."

"Eståba si Juan gi eskuela." = "Juan was at school."
"Pa'go håssan guma' haligi giya Guåhan, lao eståba bula." = "Houses on stilts are rare now on Guam, but (there used to be) before there were lots."
"Estaba guåha tångantångan gi kanton guma', lao in taga'." = "There was some tångantångan beside the house, but we chopped it down."

Monday, October 24, 2011

Palåbran 10/24/2011: Barånka

Barånka (bah-rung-kuh): Rocky, rugged road, bumpy.

"Machuda' i gimen-hu sa' baranka i chalan." = "My drink spilled because the road was so bumpy."
"Ladispasio sa' barånka." = "Go slower because the road's rugged."
"Mampos barånka i chalan, kalan roller coaster." = "The road is really bumpy, it's like a roller coaster."

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Palåbran 10/16/2011: Hågong

Hågong (HAH-gung): Breathe, respire, inhale, exhale, draw breath.

"Mappot gue' humågong sa' puru åsu (i aire)." = "It's difficult for him/her to breathe because the air's filled with smoke."
"Munga yo' humågong sa' mutong." = "I don't want to inhale because it stinks."
"Hågong ni gui'eng-mu fan!" = "Breathe through (with) your nose please!"

Friday, September 30, 2011

Leksion Chamoru: Prefix ya-

Ya- is the "superlative prefix" according to the dictionaries and grammar books, but it's actually a lot simpler than it sounds. Ya- is used with location and direction words, along with a reduplication of the final syllable, and is used to mean the "most" in that direction. Here are some examples:
  • Hulo' = Up, above, etc...
    Ya- + hulo' => Yahululo' (reduplication of final syllable) = Highest place, farthest up.
  • Mo'na = Front, before (preposition), ahead, etc...
    Ya- + mo'na => Yamo'nana (reduplication) = Front-most, farthest up front.
  • Håya = South (in Guam), East (in Saipan)
    Ya- + håya => Yahåyaya (reduplication) = Southernmost/Easternmost, farthest South/East.
Here are some examples of sentences comparing the stem/root words with the "superlatives."
  1. Hulo':
    • Po'lo i yabi gi hilo' i estånte. = Put the key on top of the shelf.
    • Po'lo i yabi gi yahululo' na estånte. = Put the key on the top (highest) shelf.
  2. Mo'na:
    • Gaige yo' gi me'na. = I'm in front (at the front).
    • Gaige yo' gi yamo'nana. = I'm at the very front (farthest up front).
  3. Håya:
    • Må'pos gue' håya. = He went south/east (southward/eastward).
    • Måtto gue' gi yahåyaya. = He arrived at the southernmost/easternmost point.
Note: This whole construction came about because of the way Chamorro "articles" work (i/si/iya). In modern Chamorro we use iya as the article for places, but we normally only use it with proper place names (i.e.: iya Guåhan; iya Kalifotnia; iya Amerika, etc.). In older Chamorro iya was pretty much used for any location it seems. So, if we use this idea we get terms like iya hulo' (the high place), iya mo'na (the front place), and iya håya (the south place), which through the process of reduplication/intensification turn to iya hululo', iya mo'nana, and iya håyaya. Through common usage and pronunciation we dropped the initial "i" from iya and combined it with the stem/root to get yahululo', yamo'nana,  and yahåyaya.

Pronunciation of the new words seems a little tricky, because the technical explanation would be that the stress falls on the "ante penultimate" syllable (3rd to last syllable). If we consider the above note, it makes it a lot easier to understand, because we're essentially saying two words in one:
  1. I yahululo'
    => Iya hululo' => EE-dza WHO-loo-loo'
  2. I yamo'nana
    => Iya mo'nana => EE-dza MOH'-nuh-nuh
  3. I yahåyaya
    => Iya håyaya => EE-dza HA-dza-dza
 Remember, if you have any questions or suggestions, please, don't hesitate to leave a comment on the blog or Facebook page.

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Palåbran 09/27/2011: Kilili

Kilili (KEY-lee-lee): To hand-carry, drift away--by current, carry along.

Note: This type of carrying is how you would hold a grocery bag or a purse, by holding it in your hand rather than on your shoulder or to your chest. The other definition means to be taken by the current.

"Puti kalalot-hu sa' hu kilili i kestat ya gof makkat." = "My fingers hurt because I was carrying the bag and it was heavy."
"I korente ha kilili i boti." = "The current carried the boat away."
"Ai, annai hu kilili iyo-ku selfon (cell-phone) bumasnak ya mayamak!" = "Ai, when I was carrying my cell-phone in my hand it slipped out and broke!"

Sunday, September 11, 2011

Leksion Chamoru: Prefix tak-

Tak- is a comparative prefix that is used with location and direction words. Essentially, tak- takes the direction/location and makes it "in a far place/degree."
  • Hulo' = Up, above, on top of.
    Tak- + hulo' =>; Takkilo' = High, in a (high) far up place.
  • Påpa' = Down, below, bottom, southward, downward, beneath.
    Tak- + påpa' =>; Takpapa' = Low, in a (low) far down place.
  • Huyong = Out, ouside.
    Tak- + huyong =>; Takhiyong = Far out, in a far out place.
    Another way to consider the prefix tak- is that it indicates a place greater degree, but not the greatest degree.
    • Hålom = In, inside.
      Tak- + hålom =>; Takhalom = Inner, in a (inner) far inside place.
      (i.e. in an inner area, but not necessarily the innermost place)
    • Fo'na* = Ahead, be first.
      Tak- + fo'na =>; Takfe'na = Out front, in a (forward) far up front place.
      (i.e. in a more forward position, but not necessarily the farthest out front)
    Let's go ahead and use the above examples in sentences to get a better feeling of what tak- actually does.
    • Ti siña hu taka' i kisami sa' gof takkilo'. = I can't reach the ceiling because it's very high up.
    • Hunggan, takpapa' i presio-ña, lao, åhe', ti baråtu ha'. = Yes, its price is low, but, no, it's not really cheap.
    • Sumåsåga yo' takhiyong gi siudåt. = I live far outside of the city.
    • Bai sångåni hao ginen takhalom gi korason-hu. = I'll tell you from deep inside my heart.
    • Ti un li'e' yo' gi fila sa' gof takfe'na hao. = You didn't see me in line, because you were far up front (in line).
      Tak- also follows the rules of vowel harmony, meaning, in general, we change the first vowel in the root word from å to a, o to e, and u to i. The prefix also assumes the primary stress of the new word, so the above examples would be pronounced:
      • Takhilo' => TACK-he-loo'
        => TACK-key-loo'
      • Takpapa' => TACK-pa-pa'
      • Takhiyong => TACK-he-yung
      • Takhalom => TACK-ha-lum
      • Takfe'na => TACK-feh'-nah

      *Mo'na (preposition/past participle form of fo'na) is not really used with the prefix tak-. Instead we use the general/future/command form fo'na.

      Sunday, September 4, 2011

      Utugrafian Chamoru (Chamorro Orthography)

      Para todus ni manmalago' tumungo' i utugrafian Chamoru.
      Gi halacha mafa'nu'i yo' nu este na PDF utugrafia, ya mientras ti perfektu i tinige'-hu gi Chamoru, ha gof ayuyuda yo'.

      (For those that want to learn the Chamorro orthography (the way to write in Chamorro).
      I was recently shown the orthography in PDF format, and while my Chamorro writing isn't perfect, the file has been a big help.)

      Monday, August 22, 2011

      Leksion Chamoru: Prefix san-

      San- is called a directional prefix. However, "directional" doesn't fully explain what it does. San- marks a position rather than a relative location. In other words san- changes "above"/"upon" to "(the) top of"; "outside of" to "(the) outside of"; "behind" to "(the) back of." Here are some examples:
      • Hulo' = Up, above, on top of.
        San- + hulo' => Sanhilo' = Above (preposition), (the) top of.
      • Mo'na = Front, be first, in front of, forward.
        San- + mo'na => Sanme'na = Front side of, front of.
      • Hålom = In, into, inside, enter.
        San- + hålom => Sanhalom = Inside, interior, internal, in, into.
      Just giving the definitions to the words might not help too much, so here are some examples in sentences:
      • Hu po'lo i yabi-hu gi hilo' lamasa. = I put my keys on (top of) the table.
        Hu po'lo i yabi-hu gi sanhilo' i lamasa. = I put my keys on (the) top of the table.
      • Gaige i ga'-hu ga'lågu gi me'nan guma'. = My dog is in front of the house.
        Gaige i ga'-hu ga'lågu gi sanme'nan guma'. = My dog is on the front part of the house. = My dog is in the front yard.
      • Siña hao mañodda' pugas gi halom i tenda. = You can find rice in the store.
        Siña hao mañodda' pugas gi sanhalom i tenda. = You can find rice (on the) inside (of) the store (as opposed to on the outside).
      The prefix san- is only used with location words, e.g. hålom (in), mo'na (front), lågu (north--Guam, west--Saipan), etc.
      San- also follows the rules of vowel harmony. Meaning that in general you "pull back" the first vowel of the root word, i.e.: å to a, o to e, and u to i.

      Pålåbran 08/22/2011: Hongga

      Hongga (HONG-ga): Audible; able to be heard.

      Note: Some also say honggan. I believe the word is a contraction of hungok (to hear) + -(y)on (abilitative suffix) to get something like hungukon, however I, personally, have never heard hungukon.

      "Hongga i burukento gi halom i måkinan karetå-hu." = "There's an audible noise in my car's engine."
      "Famatkilu fan nåya' sa' kalan ti hongga i taotao." = "Be quiet for a bit, because the person is practically inaudible."
      "Hongga i essalao-na desde gi halom guma'." = "His yelling was audible from inside the house."

      Thursday, August 11, 2011

      Pålåbran 08/11/2010: Bisita

      Bisita (bee-SEE-ta): Visit, visitor.

      Note: Bisita can be use as either a verb or a noun.

      "Hu bisita i che'lu-hu giya California." = "I visited my sister in California."
      "Kao en bisita si Tomås esta?" = "Have you (plural) already visited Tomas?"
      "Kuåntos tiempo para un fanbisita guini?" = "How long are you going to visit here?"

      "Megaggai bisitå-hu siha gi tiempon Påskua." = "I have a lot of visitors at Christmas time."
      "Ti para u fåtto si Jose, sa' guåha bisitå-ña." = "Jose isn't coming, since he has a visitor."
      "I bisita ilek-ña taotao Hapon gue'." = "The visitor said he is Japanese."

      Tuesday, July 12, 2011

      Estorian Chamoru: Si Sirena

      I happened upon this version of the legend earlier today, I forgot who showed it to me first, but I hope you enjoy it. (As a disclaimer, I changed the spellings to better match the current orthography. I also translated this version more or less contextually, but tried to keep it as literal as possible.)

      Si Sirena:

      Tåftåf gi ega'an gi primet na hå'åni di primet ågua di Åbrit. På'go dumokko' i atdao gi fanmaigu'on-ña. Ha i'ina gi sumanlichan i fansågåyan Hågåtña. Hagas i lina'la' guihi na fansågåyan ti matulaika. Hå'åni di hå'åni mataiguiguihi ha' i lina'la' i Chamoru.
      (Early in the morning on the first day of the first showers of April. The sun was just sprouting from its resting place. It shone from the West on the village of Hågåtña. Life there in the village didn't change. Day to day it was the Chamorro way of life.)

      Ma'ålok na gi manmaloffan na hå'åni siha guåha un achaiguasguas måñåsåga guihi na fansågåyan gi Barion San Nicolas, hihut gi Minondo gi Saddok Hågåtña. Ma'ålok nu ini na achaigåsguås na guåha maisan gefpå'go yan masamai na på'go pålao'an ni mafa'na'an, Sirena.
      (It's said that in a past time there were people living there in the San Nicolas neighborhood, near Minondo by the Hågåtña River. It's said that among those people there was a beautiful girl, she was especially beautiful, who was called Sirena.)

      Un hå'åni tinago' as nånå-ña, "Sirena, Sirena, iha, hågå-hu. Kahulo' yan un tåftåfgui chumuli'i i pinigan."
      (One day she was commanded by her mother, "Sirena, Sirena, daughter, my daughter. Get up so you can go early and get the charcoal.")

      Annai på'gu para u dingu si Sirena iyasihaa, gof tinago' as nånå-ña na cha'ña u o'otatnon. Tinago' na u lachaddek ni pinigan. Lao ma'ålok na chatmatågo' si Sirena. Mofo'na i tinane'-ña, tåtåtte i inesge'-ña. Ya yanggen guåha matågo'-ña, fine'na sumugo' gi saddok ya ñumangu.
      (When Sirena was just about to leave, her mother sternly commanded her that she should not dawdle. She was commanded to quickly get the charcoal. However, it's said that Sirena didn't take orders well. First came her own business, then her obedience followed. And when she received a command, she would first stop by the river and swim.) 

      Ayu na oga'an, hagas ninangga nu as nånå-ña. Maloffan åpmam i hinanao-ña ki håfa matågo'-ña. Annai ti måfåtto ha', måtto i minaipe-ña ya ilek-na, "Asi pudiera mohon na u fama'guihan."
      (That morning, her mother had been waiting. Her trip was taking a great length of time for what she was commanded. When she didn't come, the mother became enraged and said, "I wish she would turn into a fish.")

      Annai på'go ha sångan uhi, kakakalom i matlinan Sirena. Ha li'e' na gof chathinasso. Ha faisin "Mångge si Sirena?"
      (When she had said that, Sirena's godmother was entering. She saw that the mother was extremely worried. She asked, "Where is Sirena?")

      Ineppe', "Gaigi ta'lo gi saddok ya ohalara mohon na u fama'guihan. Yanggen i hanom muna'mamagof gue', ohala mohon na u sen såga ha' gi saddok!"
      (The mother answered, "She's at the river again and I hope she turns into a fish. If the water makes her happy, then I wish she would just stay there in the river!")

      Ha alulåyi umenta'lu i matlinan Sirena. Ilek-ña, "Put et amot di Di'os! Na'yo'åsi' hao! Na'maggem i sentimiento-mu! Håfa masusedi, masusedi! Lao guåha lokkue' iyoku nu guiya kumu saina. ya iyoku ni pine'lon Yu'os, eyu ti siña matulaika, gi ilu-ña påpa' guatu gi apuyå'-ña! Ayu na echong-ña yan empi' ti siña måfnas gi tataotao-ña!"
      (The godmother hurried to intervene. She said, "For the love of God! Have some compassion! Calm your emotions! What has happened, has happened! However, I also own a part of her as an elder. And mine is given to me by God, that part you can't change, from her head down to her navel! That part of her cannot be erased!")

      Annai på'gu maloffan uhi na inadingan, ñumañangu ha' si Sirena gi saddok. Lao guihi na momento, chumatguiya. Mumakkat i tataotao-ña ya ha alulåyi ñumangu guatu gi fanggo'tiyan. Ha kehago' i hinagon-ña ya umågang, "Ai nåna, matlaya sea." Annai ha atan påpa' i nao'ao hånom, ha li'e' na matulalaika i tataotao-ña. Lumuhan ya guse' ha hasso i matågo'-ña.
      (When the conversation had just taken place, Sirena was still swimming in the river. However at that moment, she felt ill. Her body became heavy and she hurriedly swam to the bank. She tried to catch her breath and called out, "Oh Mother, matlaya sea*." When she looked down in the clear water, she saw her body was changing. She became frightened and quickly remembered what she was commanded.)

      Guihi lokkue' na momento, manfugo' yan ha sienti na nana i makkat ya maipe na fino'-ña; lao atrasao. Ha falågue malak i Minondo. Annai ha li'e' si Sirena, ha tungo' na hiningok yan magutos i fino'-ña mågåhet. Kumasao ya ilek-ña, "Sirena, Sirena, hågå-hu, asi'i yo'ni fino'-hu. Na ada ennao mågåhit minalago'-hu!"
      (Also at that moment, the mother shivered and felt how hard and hot her words were; but it was too late. She went running to Minondo. When she saw Sirena, she knew she was heard and her last words come true. She cried and said, "Sirena, Sirena, my daughter, forgive me what I said. It wasn't what I really wanted!")

      Annai ha hihuhuti si Sirena, ha kehago' i kannai-ña, lao ti siña ha go'te.
      (When Sirena came close, she tired to reach for her hand, but she couldn't hold it.)
      Inatan hulo' gi fanggo'tiyan ya ilek-ña, "Nåna, masusedi, åsi'i yo'. Håfa maloffan, maloffan."
      (She looked up at the bank and said, "Mother, it's already done, forgive me. What has happened, has happened.")
      Annai på'go ha sångan uhi, milalak i lago'-ña ya ilek-ña, "Nåna, adios, adios, nåna. Yo entrego mi alma**."
      When she has said that, her tears flowed and she said, "Mother, goodbye, goodbye, mother. Yo entrego mi alma.")

      Ma'ålok na desdi ayu na hå'åni, sumåga si Sirena gi pachot Sågua' Hågåtña. Tåya' na ma li'e'. Lao i fumatotoigui yuhi na lugåt, ma'ålok na ma huhungok i masamai na lailai-ña.
      (It's said that from that day, Sirena stays at the mother of the Hågåtña River. They never see her. However, those that come by that place, it's said that they hear her song.)

      *I don't really know what "matlaya sea" means.
      **Spanish for "I give my soul."

      Saturday, July 2, 2011

      Kåntan Chamoru: Maloffan Hao (Johnny Sablan)

      Another oldie but goodie from Johnny Sablan.

      Maloffan Hao
      as Johnny Sablan

      Maloffan hao (maloffan hao),
      (You passed by,)
      ya tåya' neni nai sinangån-mu
      (and, baby, you didn't say anything)
                    [C]                   [F]
      pues håfa nai neni malago'-mu?
      (then what, baby, do you want?)

      Mampos triste yo' (maloffan hao),
      (I'm so sad (you passed by),)
      sa' ti hu tungo' nai kao båsta hao.
      (because I don't know if you're done.)
                     [C]                  [F]
      Hu guaiya hao gi korason-hu (hu guaiya hao).
      (I love you in my heart (I love you).)

                        [Bb]                     [F]
      Yanggen konfotme hao na ta para (hu konfotme)
      (If it's you wish that we're going to end (I agree))
             [G7]                       [C]     [C7]
      tåya' siña hu cho'gue, lao bai hu konfotme.
      (I can't do anything, but I'll agree.)

      Maloffan hao (maloffan hao),
      (You passed by,)

      ya tåya' neni nai sinangån-mu
      (and, baby, you didn't say anything)

                    [C]                   [F]
      pues håfa nai neni malago'-mu?
      (then what, baby, do you want?)

      Neni, mampos un na'triste yo', eståba yo' gi bentanå-hu annai måloffan hao, lao tåya' neni sinangån-mu--ni sikiera un ayu'os yo'. Lao diahlo' neni, bai sungon todu i puten i korason-hu, ya bai konfotme yanggen ennao malago'-mu. Neni, hongge yo', ya hu hahasso hao todu i tiempo, ya bai hu måtai påpa' gi hilo' tåno', ya ti hu maleffa nu hågu.
      (Baby, you made me really sad, I was at my window when you passed by, but you didn't say anything--you didn't bother to even wave at me. But that's alright, baby, I'll bear all my heartaches, and I'll conform if that's what you want. Baby, believe me, I'll think of you all the time, and I'll be dead on the earth, but I won't forget about you.)

                        [Bb]                     [F]
      Yanggen konfotme hao na ta para (hu konfotme)
      (If it's you wish that we're going to end (I agree))
             [G7]                       [C]     [C7]
      tåya' siña hu cho'gue, lao bai hu konfotme.
      (I can't do anything, but I'll agree.)

      Maloffan hao (maloffan hao),
      (You passed by,)


      ya tåya' neni nai sinangån-mu
      (and, baby, you didn't say anything)
                   [C]                  [F]
      Hu gaiya hao gi korason-hu (hu guaiya hao).
      (I love you in my heart (I love you).)
                   [C]                  [F]
      Hu gaiya hao gi korason-hu (hu guaiya hao).
      (I love you in my heart (I love you).)
                   [C]                  [F]
      Hu gaiya hao gi korason-hu (maloffan hao).
      (I love you in my heart (you passed by).)

      Pålåbran 07/02/2011: Maloffan

      Maloffan (muh-LOAF-fan):
      1. Transported, toted, hauled, transferred, carried from one place to another.
      2. Past time, recently, previous, some time ago, previously.
      3. Exceedingly, surpassingly, superlatively, notably, excessively, extremely, amazingly, preeminently, immeasurably.
      4. Passed by, crossed by, gone/went by.
      Note: Loffan is the Chamorro word for "transport" or "carry." This allows for maloffan to have various different applications. The first definition is straightforward and literal, in a figurative sense the 2nd is also fairly clear (the 4th is just like the 2nd), and the 3rd is a similar to English when you say that someone got "carried away."

      Note: The 4th definition of  maloffan cannot be used in active voice, meaning you can't say "pass the car in front of you" using maloffan. In this case you would most likely use the word upos (pass - as in a race).

      "Manmaloffan i trastes-ña siha esta ginen i tenda para i gima'-ña." = "Her furniture (stuff) was already transported from the store to her house."
      "I maloffan na tiempo." = "Past time." = "Time gone by."
      "Esta maloffan i ora annai para u fåtto mågi." = "The time is past when they would be here."
      "Maloffan gue' dudos." = "She extremely showoff-ish."
      "Maloffan yo' ñålang." = "I am overly hungry."
      "Maloffan hao ya ni sikiera un ayu'os yo'." = "You passed by and didn't bother to wave at me."
      "Hu li'e' si Juan annai maloffan yo' gi che'cho'-ña." = "I saw John when I passed by his job."

      Monday, June 13, 2011

      Kåntan Chamoru: Nobia Nene (Johnny Sablan)

      Here's another one of my favorite old time Chamorro songs. The translation isn't word-for-word, it's more contextual, if you would like the word for word translation, let me know.

      Also, if it's too high, you can transpose it from A to G by A=>G, A7=>G7, D=>C, E7=>D7, F#m=>Em.

      Nobia Nene
      as Johnny Sablan

      [A]                              [D]
      I puti'on, yanggen gumupu
      (When the star flies)
      gi islan i langet,
      (on our heavenly island)
      oggan guatu gi tronkon mapågåhes.
      (it lands in a base of clouds)
                    [A]       [D]
      Annai hu li'e' si neni
      (When I saw baby)
      åntes di ha dingu yo', 
      (before she left me,)
                   [A]                       [E7]
      ya ha sångan åntes di hu maigo' na
      (and she said before I slept that)
                     [A]    [A7]
      ha guaiya yo'. 
      (she loved me.)

                        [D]            [E7]
      Hågu nai neni, hågu na pålao'an,
      (You, baby, you girl,)
                 [A]                [F#m]
      hu guiguifi, hå'åni yan puengi,
      (I dream about, day and night,)
                     [D]                [E7]
      sa' iyo-mu yo', ya iyo-ku hao,
      (because I'm yours, and you're mine,)
                [A]   [A7]
      nobia neni. 
                     [D]                     [E7]
      Hågu na pålao'an, hågu nai neni,
      (You, girl, you, baby,)
                          [A]          [F#m]
      hå'åni yan puenge, hu guiguife,
      (day and night I dream about,)
                     [D]                [E7]
      sa' iyo-mu yo', ya iyo-ku hao, 
      (because I'm yours, and you're mine,)
                 [A]   [E7]
      nobia neni.

                      [A]            [D]
      Sesso hu hahasso i tiempo
      (I'm always thinking about the time)
      pot hågu neni yan i flores-mu.
      (of you, girl, and your flowers.)
                   [A]                 [E7]
      Annai un dingu yo' gi un puengi,
      (when you left me one night,)
                    [A]       [D]
      lao esta neni ti hu langak
      (but, baby, I can't stand it)
      ya triste yo' yan gof måhålang.
      (I'm sad and missing you.)
                     [A]           [E7]
      Konne' yo' neni ya ta hita 
      (Take me baby, and we'll go together) 
                    [A]   [A7]
      gi langet isla.
      (to the heavenly island.)

      (Chorus)... [F#m]

                          [D]                     [E7]
      Sa' iyo-mu yo', ya iyo-ku hao,
      (Because I'm yours, and you're mine,)
      nobia neni.

      Sunday, June 12, 2011

      Pålåbran 06/12/2011: Ågupa'

      Ågupa' (uh-GOO-pa'): Tomorrow

      Note: By adding the comparative suffix ña, you form ågupå'ña (the day after tomorrow).

      "Ågupa' bai hu bisita i tiå-hu." = "I will visit my aunt tomorrow."
      "Ki ora para un facho'cho' ågupa'?" = "What time are you working tomorrow?"
      "Ti siña hu cho'guiyi hao på'go, lao hunggan gi agupa'." = "I can't do it for you now, but tomorrow, yes."

      Saturday, June 4, 2011

      Pålåbran 06/04/2011: Luhan

      Luhan (LOO-han): Frightened, scared, terrified, horrified, fear.

      "Kao luhan hao nu roller coaster?" = "Are you scared of roller coasters?"
      "Munga luluhan." = "Don't be scared."
      "Luhan si Juan annai måpuha i botte." = "John was scared when the boat capsized."

      Friday, May 27, 2011

      Kantan Chamoru: Apu Magi (JD Crutch)

      It's been said that one of the best helps in learning a language is listening to songs in the language. I think this is a good idea, the only problem with it is that in Chamorro, many of the singers aren't the easiest to understand. So, here are the lyrics to one of my favorites with chords and a tranlsation:

      Apo' Mågi
      as J.D. "Crutch"

      Ai, siña ti un tungo', taiguhi tiningo' put hågu,
      (Oh,  you might not have known, I thought that way of you,)
      [G]                                               [D]
      ya ti hu achakka' hao yanggen un dingu.
      (and I don't blame you if you leave.) 
      Lao hu li'e' hao gi painge, ya un lågo' gi matå-mu,
      (But I saw you last night, with a tear in your eye,) 
      [D]   [D7]                                     [G]
      ya ha påcha yo' mås ki pa bai hu sångan.
      (and it touched me more than I'll say.) 
      Lao ti hu hongge i che'lu-hu, na po un na'puti yo' nai på'go,
      (But I don't believe, my sister, that you're going to hurt me now,)
      [G]        [G7]                             [C]
      ni guåhu gagaige mågåhet gi fi'on-mu
      (with me truly being there by your side.)

      [C]   [D]            [G]
      Apo' mågi gi apagå'-hu, 
      (Lean here on my shoulder,)
      [G]            [Em]                   [C]
      ya bai hu sångåni hao ni estoriå-hu,
      (and I'll tell you my story,)
      [C]   [D]    [G] [G7]
      sa' hågu ya-hu.
      (because I love you.)
      [G7] [C]   [D]    [G]
      Apo' mågi gi apagå'-hu, 
      (Lean here on my shoulder,)
      [G]            [Em]                    [C]
      ya bai hu sångåni hao ni estoriå-hu,
      (and I'll tell you my story,) 
      [C]   [D]    [G]
      sa' hågu ya-hu.
      (because I love you.)

      [G]                                                                                [D]
      Ai, siña ti un hongge na i korason-hu kumåkåti, ai, pot hågu.
      (Oh, you might not believe that my heart is crying, oh, for you.)
      Ai, lao hågu i che'lu-hu, ai, i mågåhet ti un hahasso,
      (Oh, but you my sister, oh, you don't remember the truth,)
      [D]     [D7]                               [G]
      na pot hågu yo' nai neni na måfåtto.
      (that it's for you that I've come.) 
      Lao un na'klåru giya guåhu yan mågåhet na i ti ya-mu,
      (But you've made it clear to me, and you don't like the truth.)
      [G]         [G7]                                          [C]
      ya bai hu hånao yanggen nå'ån-hu na ti hu hungok.
      (and I'll go if I don't hear my name.)
      Chorus (2x)

      Thursday, May 12, 2011

      Pålåbran 05/12/2011: Åpmam

      Åpmam (UP-mam): Ago, past, gone, awhile, for sometime, since olden times.

      Note: The above definition is from Topping's dictionary, but another way to view this word is as "long time."

      "Åpmam na tiempo." = "A long time ago."
      "Ti åpmam yo' tåtte." = "I'll be back soon (not long)."
      "Ti åpmam yo' guatu." = "I'll be there soon." / "I won't be long getting there."
      "Åpmam ti umali'e' hit." = "We haven't seen each other for a long time." / "Long time no see."
      "Ti åpmam bai yute'." = "I'll throw it away soon."

      Monday, May 9, 2011

      Pålåbran 05/09/2011: Låkse

      Låkse (LUCK-see): Sew, stitch.

      "Ya-ña manlåkse si Rosa." = "Rosa likes to sew."
      "Ha låkse i nuebu na chininå-hu." = "She sewed my new shirt."
      "Kao hågu lumåkse i bestidu?" = "Were you the one that sewed the dress."

      Friday, April 29, 2011

      Leksion Chamoru: Prefix na'-

      One of the most common prefixes in Chamorro is na'-. The formal definition is that na'- is a causative prefix, that just means that it causes or makes something to happen. To use the prefix you simply add it in front something to be caused. Here are some examples:
      • Hånao = To go.
        Na'- + hånao => Na'hånao = To make (someone) go.
      • Sugon = To drive (the car/cart/...).
        Na'- + sugon => Na'sugon = To make (somone) drive (the car/cart/...)
      • Bulåchu = Drunk, intoxicated.
        Na'- + bulåchu => Na'bulåchu = To make (someone) drunk, to intoxicate (someone).
      • Magof = Happy.
        Na'- + magof => Na'magof = To make (someone) happy.
      Notice that na'- causes "someone" or "something" to do whatever na'- is attached to. Using the above examples we can start to see what that means:
      • Na'hånao i lahi-mu para i tenda. = Make your son go to the store.
      • I tata ha na'sugon i hagå-ña ni kareta = The father made his daughter drive the car.
      • Ma na'bulåchu yo' gi painge. = They got me drunk last night.
      • Na'magof si nånå-mu! = Make your mother happy!
      The more grammatically technical part of the prefix na'- is that you need to keep plural and "transitive" aspect of the verbs intact. That is to say, if the verb is plural, then keep it plural, and if the verb is "intransitive", then keep it that way. Also, since it's a potential action, things change to the future forms. Hopefully some examples will make more sense:
      • Manhånao siha. = They went/go.
        Na'- + manhånao => Na'fanhånao
        Ha na'fanhånao siha = He made them leave
      • Mañugon yo' = I drive/drove.
        Na'- + mañugon => Na'fañugon
        Si tåtå-hu ha na'fañugon yo'. = My father caused me to drive.
      • Mambulåchu i lalåhi. = The men are drunk.
        Na'- + mambulåchu => Na'fambulåchu
        I famalao'an ma na'fambulåchu i lalåhi gi painge. = The women got the men (caused them to become) drunk last night.
      • Manmagof i famagu'on. = The children are happy.
        Na'- + manmagof => Na'fanmagof
        Nihi para Disneyland ya ta na'fanmagof i famagu'on. = Let's go to Disneyland and make the children happy.
       One last thing to keep in mind is accentuation/pronunciation. In all the above examples the prefix na'- does not change the emphasis/stress of the syllables. However, in some cases na'- takes the primary stress of the new word; in these cases na'- means "one who causes" or "that which makes." There are several well known examples of this case:
      • Na'magof = One who makes others happy.
        Pronounced: NAH'-ma-guf
      • Na'bubu = One who makes others angry.
        Pronounced: NAH'-boo-boo
      • Na'chålek = One who makes others laugh; something which causes laughter.
        Pronounced: NAH'-chuh-lick
      • Na'o'son = One who makes others bored; boring, tiresome.
        Pronounced: NAH'-o'-sun
      • Na'må'åse' = One who makes others merciful; miserable; pitiful; pathetic; wretched.
        Pronounced: NAH'-muh'-see'; Nah'-muh'-ah-see'

      Pålåbran 04/29/2011: Fa'na'an

      Fa'na'an (fah'-NAH'-an): Maybe, perhaps.

      Note: Fa'na'an comes from fa'- (to change or pretend to be) + nå'an (name). Fa'na'an literally means "nickname," but is often used as "maybe," "perhaps," or even in the sense of "seems like."

      "Fa'na'an ti ya-ña i fina'tinås-hu." = "Perhaps (it seems like) she doesn't like my cooking."
      "Fa'na'an ni sikiera un na'gåsgås i gima'-mu." = "Maybe (it's like) you didn't even bother to clean your house."
      "Para bai hånao fa'na'an para i gipot." = "Perhaps I'll go to the party."

      Monday, April 25, 2011

      Pålåbran 04/25/2011: Likkidu

      Likkidu (LICK-key-dew): Only, one and only, unique.

      "Likkidu na måfañågu hao." = "You're an only child (only-born)."
      "Estegue' i likkidu na påpet siento gi kapetå-hu." = "Here's the only 100 dollar bill in my wallet."
      "Guiya likkidu gi familiå-ña umeskuekuela gi unibetsidåt." = "She the only one in her family to go to university."

      Monday, March 21, 2011

      Pålåbran 03/21/2011: Taitai

      Taitai (TIE-tie): Read

      Note: Taitai also can mean "pray."

      "I patgon ha taitai i lepblo." = "The child read the book."
      "Ya-hu manaitai." = "I like to read."
      "Manmanaitai i famagu'on lepblo." = "The children read books."

      Tuesday, March 15, 2011

      Pålåbran 03/15/2011: Pålapåla

      Pålapåla (paw-la-PAW-la): Shack, hut, shanty, roof extending from house to provide shelter from sun and rain, pavillion.

      Note: This definition is from Topping's dictionary, but it's not clear that only parts of the definition are generally used in some of the dialects of Chamorro. In Guam's northern dialect, the pålapåla generally only refers to a pavilion or a temporary canopy of sorts, but not a shack or hut. Whereas in Saipan's dialect of Chamorro it is more generally used to mean the shack or hut (I've heard it called a homestead).

      "Ma håtsa i palapåla para i fiesta." = "They raised (built) the canopy/shelter for the party."
      "Kao guåha pålapåla, sa' sempre para u uchan." = "Is there a pavilion/canopy, because it going to rain?"
      "Manmatåtå'chong i manamko' gi papa' i palapåla, sa' maipe i semnak." = "The elders are sitting beneath the canopy, because the heat of the sun."

      Sunday, March 13, 2011

      Leksion Chamoru: Prefix mina'-

      Mina'- is a very simple prefix, it is an "ordinal marker." That just means that it takes a "cardinal" number (2, 3, 4...) and changes it to an ordinal (2nd, 3rd, 4th...).
      • Dos (two) => Mina'dos (second)
      • Bente (twenty) => Mina'bente (twentieth)
      • Katotse (fourteen) => Mina'katotse (fourteenth)
      Only the number 1 is different,
      • Unu (one) => Fine'na/Finene'na/Fine'nana (first)
      Fine'na/Finene'na/Fine'nana all come from the root fo'na/mo'na (front).

      Wednesday, February 9, 2011

      Pålåbran 02/09/2011: Lekngai

      Lekngai (LEK-ngai): Stiff-necked; cricked neck.

      "Lekngai yo'." = "I have a crick in my neck."
      "Munga maigo' taiguenao na un lekngai." = "Don't sleep like that or you'll get a stiff neck."
      "Gof ya-ña umegga' TV, ya fihu lekngai gue'." = "He really likes to watch TV, and often has a stiff neck."

      Note: In Chamorro you "are" lekngai rather than "have" lekngai. Also, instead of using lekngai as in the above examples, you can also use it to describe your neck, i.e.: Lekngai i tengho-hu (My neck is stiff).

      Thursday, January 20, 2011

      Leksion Chamoru: Prefix mi-

      The prefix mi- is added to nouns to say "full of" or "plenty of." Here are some examples:
      • åcho' = rock
        Mi- + åcho' => Mi'acho' = Full of rocks, rocky.
      • kulot = color
        Mi- + kulot => Mikulot = Full of color, colorful.
      • unai = sand
        Mi- + unai => Mi'inai = Full of sand, sandy.
      The primary stress of the new word falls on mi-, so for the above examples we get:
      • Mi'acho' => ME'-a-choo'
      • Mikulot => ME-koo-lut
      • Mi'inai => ME'-ee-nigh
      One thing to note is that mi- follows the rules of vowel harmony. That just means that, in general, the first vowel of the root word is "pulled back." I.e.: å to a, o to e, and u to i.

      Saturday, January 15, 2011

      Pålåbran 01/15/2011: Ulu

      Ulu (OO-loo): Head

      Note: When using with a possessive suffix, it always changes to ilu, i.e., ilu-hu, ilu-mu, ... This occurs even when the focus marker "i" is not there.

      "Mådanche ilu-ña, ya på'go diso'." = "His head was hit, and now has a bump."
      "Gof ataktak ilu-hu." = "I have a very stubborn head."
      "Usa i matiyu ni dankolo ilu-ña." = "Use the big-headed hammer."